3 MINUTE MILE
3 MINUTE MILE PhoneEmailTwitterLinkedIn
3 Minute Mile - driving performance, talent, leadership and development
3 Minute Mile - Leadership development and talent management experts using Hogan Assessment systems to drive optimum business performance, leadership development and effective talent management

 

Research

To view research articles and reports from our collection please select from the summaries below:

 

 

Article Cover    

5 Steps to a Better High Potential Programme

    Hogan Research 2012
     
    Competent leadership is crucial for a company’s success. Recent studies indicate that businesses with strong leadership are 13 times more likely to outperform their competition, and three times more likely to retain their most talented employees. Yet, only 44% of HR professionals report having formal processes for identifying employees with leadership potential, and only 18% report having enough bench strength to meet their companies’ future needs.
     
Article Cover    

Coaching on the Dark Side

    Eric Nelson & Robert Hogan
     
    Dysfunctional personality characteristics can derail the career of an otherwise competent executive. Personality predicts both leadership effectiveness and derailment, and assessment of these characteristics is critical for effective coaching and leader development. This paper reviews the relationship between personality and leadership and offers a taxonomy of flawed interpersonal strategies that can degrade a leader’s capacity to build and maintain high-performing teams. Assessment of these dysfunctional dispositions facilitates the coach’s ability to build an effective coaching relationship, enhance the executive’s strategic self-awareness, and identify appropriate targets and strategies for intervention.
     
Article Cover    

Culture and Personality

    Robert Hogan and Michael Harris Bond
     
    On 13 April 1769, Captain James Cook anchored his ship, H. M. Bark Endeavour, in a Tahitian harbour. His assignment was to build a small fort and an observatory in order to measure the transit of the moon, which would occur on 3 June. Within minutes of anchoring, the ship was swarming with local Tahitians, none of whom had ever seen a European, none of whom spoke English, and all of whom wanted to trade with the visitors. The trade was brisk and mutually beneficial. After a while, the British caught some Tahitians stealing. Cook reported them to their own authorities, and they were duly punished, much as Cook expected. This historical anecdote presents grave problems for naïve cultural relativity.Specifically, the Cook anecdote shows that people from vastly different cultures are able to interact effectively with little difficulty. This speaks to the existence of an underlying human communality, an important starting point for any discussion of culture and personality.
     
Article Cover    

The Dark Side of Discretion

    Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc. and Robert Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems
     
    We review the literature to determine how discretion, defined as the freedom to make decisions, moderates the relationship between leader personality and organizational performance. Discretion regarding decision making increases with level in organizations so that top executives have the most discretion and the greatest opportunity to impact organizational performance. We describe how personality drives executive actions and decision making, which then impacts organizational performance; the more discretion a leader has, the more leeway there is for his/her personality to operate. Finally, using research and contemporary business examples, we illustrate the dynamics linking personality, discretionary freedom, and destructive leadership in and of organizations.
     
Article Cover    

The Dark Side of Entrepreneurship

    Robert Hogan
     
    The future of the US (and world) economy depends on the activity of entrepreneurs, who create businesses, jobs, and wealth. Although, as Adam Smith noted, they do this for perfectly self-centered reasons and the fact that others profit from their activities is of no interest to them. Adam Smith was speaking from personal experience, and if he were alive today, he would still need to speak from experience, because applied psychology knows little about the psychology of entrepreneurship in an empirical way—although interest in the subject has begun to emerge. This paper concerns what happens when they are in charge. The bottom line is that they make disastrous managers.
     
Article Cover    

High Potential Business Outcomes

    Hogan Research Division - 2011
     
    Recently Hogan began a two-phase research project examining the characteristics of high potential employees. During Phase I, we compiled data from nearly 5,000 employees identified as “high potentials” in their current organization. Phase II involved collecting performance metrics to compare successful high potential employees with those who eventually derail or leave the company. This report highlights Hogan’s Phase II research findings using data from several clients who identified employees as “high potential” and measured performance, turnover, and promotion trends in these emerging leader populations. Our report includes results based on over 500 high potential managers who completed the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI), the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), and the Motives, Values, Preferences Inventory(MVPI).
     
Article Cover    

Management and Leadership: Tactical and Strategic Thinking

    Robert Hogan
     
    The distinction between tactical and strategic thinking is important in management research, particularly in discussions about how managers fail People don't change much as they rise in organizations, but their jobs do. Managers who can't adapt to the demands of new jobs, who approach them as if they were their former jobs, are like generals who fight new wars just like they fought former wars. As people move up in management hierarchies, their jobs take on longer time horizons, with less focus on the content of the business and more focus on the business models necessary to monetize the content. The movement is from tactical to strategic problem solving, and skills that were once valuable can become counter productive in more senior jobs.
     
Article Cover    

Management Derailment: Personality Assessment and Mitigation

    Joyce Hogan, Robert Hogan and Robert B. Kaiser
     
    The vast body of research on management and leadership that has accumulated over the past 100 years leads to two very different conclusions. On the one hand, many people believe that the effort has largely been wasted. For example, Hamel (2008) argued that the modern study of management is stagnant and out of date, and Khurana (2008) argued that attempts to create a science of management have failed. In an effort to provide guidance to practitioners, Kramer (2008, p. 26) reviewed the leadership literature, commented that it is "…a strange mixture of alchemy, romantic idealism, and reason", and concluded that the lack of consistent, actionable findings prompts some business people "…to wash their hands of the whole subject, talent shortage or no talent shortage."
     
Article Cover    

Personality, Leader Behavior, and Overdoing It

    Robert B. Kaiser and Joyce Hogan
     
    This study tests predictions about links between personality and ratings of four leader behavior styles. It also examines the assumption that strengths can become weaknesses by determining the level of personality scores associated with ratings of “the right amount” vs. “too much” of the leader behaviors. Multivariate analyses in a sample of 126 managers and executives rated by 1,512 coworkers supported 93% of the predicted personality-leader behavior relationships. Distinct personality profiles defined each of the leader behaviors, and complementary behaviors were defined by opposing personality profiles. Consistent with recent findings of curvilinear personality-performance relationships, personality scores about 1 SD above the normative mean predicted doing too much of the leader behaviors. However, scores slightly below the mean also predicted doing too much of some leader behaviors. The findings indicate that leader behavior is related to a broad range of personality dimensions and show how both high and low scores on personality dimensions can compromise performance through an association with excessive behavior.
     
Article Cover    

Personality and Leadership

    Robert Hogan and Timothy Judge
     
    This paper examines the links between personality and leadership, with the goal of understanding leadership effectiveness. We define personality in terms of its bright- and dark-side manifestation; we define leadership in terms of the performance of the team, group, or organization being led; and we then review the literature linking the two. We conclude that personality and effective leadership are indeed linked, and the two key factors mediating the link are: (a) the leader’s socio-political intelligence—his/her ability to understand within and between group political dynamics; and (b) the degree to which the leader is seen as having integrity. These conclusions are empirically robust and challenge the view that leadership is the function of “situational contingencies.”
     
 

The Darkside Characteristics of Entrepreneurs

 
 
  Jeff Foster and Julie Edge
   
  This white paper explores the darkside personality characteristics that are prominent in entrepreneurs. The study, which represents over 2 years of collaborative data between Hogan and Dr Edge, involved gathering HDS data from over 250 entrepreneurs in The States.It was found that entrepreneurs score much higher on 2 clusters of HDS scales: Moving Away and Moving Against. The findings of this study are very much aligned with the image of a driven and energetic self-starter with a need for achievement, a need for autonomy, a high level of self efficacy, a strong internal locus of control and a propensity for taking risks. In particular, entrepreneurs may come across as focussing on their own goals, are willing to break standard rules and procedures, and think in creative and unusual ways.
     
 

Emotional Intelligence Competencies and Leadership Status in Real-World 

 
 
   
  Renee Yang and Dan Simonet
   
  This study concerns the association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) competencies and leadership status in real-world organizations. Based on an integrated model of EI that differentiates interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies, we conducted independent sample t-tests and logistic regression to investigate the EI competency difference between leaders and non-leaders in an applied sample of job applicants and incumbents. Results indicate that high scores on interpersonal EI competencies differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Our findings have implications for the conceptualization of EI, leadership development, and human resources practices.